Demography – Concept, types, importance and characteristics

We explain what demographics are, how it is classified, its importance and other characteristics. Also, what are demographics.

Demography analyzes various aspects of human populations.

What is demographics?

Demographics is the science that studies human populations statisticallyIn other words, based on numerical data and calculations that allow the analysis of various aspects such as the size, density, distribution and vitality rates of a population.

The statistics it uses are obtained through scientific evidence instruments (databases, surveys, censuses, and others).

The Arab Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) is considered the founder of demography, for being the first to include statistical data in their research. They were followed by the German Johann Peter Süssmilch (1707-1767) and the British John Graunt (1620-1674) and Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1934) for their important contributions to the discipline.

Characteristics of demographics

Demographics analyze a wide variety of data in a population (age, gender, race, etc.) based on certain variables, such as:

  • The size. It refers to the total number of individuals and is also called the “absolute population”.
  • The density. It refers to the average number of inhabitants per square kilometer of a territory.
  • The distribution. It refers to the number of concentration level of inhabitants in the different regions of a population.
  • The vitality rates. It refers to the statistical number of births, fertility, migrations, mortality, etc.

Types of demographics

There are two general types of demographics that are often related in research:

  • Static. It is the statistical analysis that examines the size (set of inhabitants) and structure (made up of variables of age, gender, race, etc.) of the population at a given moment of time.
  • Dynamic. It is the statistical analysis that analyzes the variation of factors over time, such as birth rate, fertility, migration and emigration, population aging, etc.

Importance of demographics

Contemporary demography deals with analyzing the most diverse problems, such as:

  • The “population explosion”.
  • The interaction between the population and its economic development.
  • The effects of birth control.
  • Urban congestion.
  • Illegal immigration.
  • The labor force.

The statistical analysis of these problems provides conclusions that allow better decision-making and forecasting on certain issues, for example, about health, social customs or economic policies.

Demographic data

Demographics are indicators that allow a population to be statistically investigatedsuch as age, gender, race, marital status, income, profession, socioeconomic status, etc.

Depending on the objective of the analysis, demographic data is interrelated with other disciplines or general variables such as biometrics, psychometrics or genetics, to understand health states, IQ, genetic code, among other characteristics of the population.

It may interest you: Population growth