Differences between Men and Women (biological, psychological, social)

We explain to you what are the differences between men and women today, in sexual, biological, psychological, social and political matters.

Differences between men and women
The differences between men and women are due to biological, historical and social factors.

What are the differences between men and women?

Our species reproduces sexually, that is, individuals are born endowed with a well differentiated biological sex, expressed in their physical and genital features, as well as in the planned development in their DNA (and whose first differential steps are taken at puberty).

Thus, traditionally human beings of the male sex have been known as men, that is, those endowed with sexual organs designed for insemination (a penis and testicles), and human beings of the female sex have been known as women, that is, those endowed with sexual organs designed for gestation (a vagina, a uterus and ovaries).

However, this difference is much more complicated than it seems at first glance since, unlike other animal species, the history of humanity is governed not only by biological, but also by historical, social and cultural imperatives.

In other words, the behavioral, social, political, aesthetic and even sex-affective roles that have traditionally been associated with the idea of ​​being a man or being a woman are different and do not come from nature, but from culture.

There are many theories about why men and women occupy a certain place in society. Some suppose that they are the cultural reflection of the biological conditions of the species, that is to say, that the biological differences between men and women created the cultural differences; Others explain that, on the contrary, these biological differences are the result of an adaptation process, the result of long socio-cultural models of the species.

Whichever explanation is preferred, the truth is that, broadly speaking, men have occupied a more leading role and power in societies, from ancient times to the present, relegating women to a subordinate place. This has gradually changed thanks to contemporary feminist struggles, but the place of each of the sexes in society is still a matter of debate.

And even at the beginning of the 21st century, there are social and political sectors that advocate for the elimination of said social, political and even behavioral differences, to build a society of people, regardless of the biological sex with which they were born.

Sex differences between men and women

The first level of differentiation – perhaps the most evident – between men and women is the one that distinguishes them by their sex, that is, by their biological configuration for reproduction. It is important to note that this differentiation only refers to biological issues and not to gender identity.

As we said, the men are in charge of inseminating, that is, to introduce their reproductive cells into the female womb, while women take care of receiving them, so that they join with their own and then house in their body the new individual fruit of procreation, during the nine months that the pregnancy lasts. For this, each of their bodies are genitally and physiologically adapted, as follows:

They have an erectile penis, which can be inserted into the vagina, and testicles that produce a substance (semen) loaded with reproductive cells. They also have a prostate, the organ responsible for the production of reproductive substances.They have a vagina that allows the erect penis to enter a uterus, where the reproductive cells from the ovaries come together to generate a new individual. In addition, they have a pair of breasts that serve to feed the young.
Their reproductive cells are spermatozoa, endowed with their own mobility and carrying half of their genetic load, characterized at the sexual level by the XY chromosomes.Their reproductive cells are the ovules, immobile and larger, carrying half of their genetic load, characterized at the sexual level by the XX chromosomes.
Your reproductive functions are controlled by male hormones, particularly testosterone.Its reproductive functions are controlled by female hormones, mainly estrogens and progesterone.
They produce their sex cells continuously.They are born with the number of eggs they will have for life, but they mature at the rate of one per month.
Its reproductive function ends at the end of intercourse, after ejaculation.Their reproductive function continues beyond intercourse, during the nine months in which the new individual is gestated in the uterus. This brings about significant changes in their body and physiology, culminating in childbirth, when the individual is expelled into the world to begin their independent physiological life.
They are unable to produce milk.After pregnancy, your breasts develop breast milk to feed the newborn during its first years of life.

Biological differences between men and women

In addition to purely reproductive differences, there are other traits that distinguish men from women, and that have to do with the functioning of their bodies and with the configuration of the same. Although, broadly speaking, men and women share the same set of organs and the same distribution of them in the body, with the exception of what refers to reproduction, as we have already seen.

These biological differences are generalizations and obviously may not apply to all individuals. They can be summarized as:

They have larger and heavier, fibrous and muscular bodies, generally capable of a greater share of physical and athletic effort, but also more prone to wear and tear.They have smaller and lighter bodies, although with significant lipid deposits, designed for greater durability and long-term resistance.
They have more body and facial hair and a deeper voice.They have less body and facial hair and a higher voice.
His genitalia are external, visible to the naked eye.Their genitals are internal, not visible to the naked eye beyond the vulva.
They tend to maintain a more homogeneous body temperature and are less sensitive to cold.They tend to suffer from the cold more easily.
The onset of ejaculation is a milestone in their sexual maturation, even in involuntary episodes (nocturnal pollutions). Although their reproductive capacity decreases over the years, they never completely lose their fertilization capacity.A milestone in their sexual maturation is the beginning of menstrual bleeding, a cycle that will last their entire reproductive life, until it is interrupted with menopause (and loss of fertility).
They have greater visual acuity, but less ability to process simultaneous stimuli and less color perception.They have lower visual acuity, but greater handling of colors and a better grip on shades. In addition, they are able to process multiple simultaneous stimuli in a better way.
They have larger brains, made up of more white than gray matter, a thin cortex, a larger amygdala, and a smaller hippocampus.They have denser brains, made up of more gray than white matter, a thicker cortex, a smaller amygdala, and a larger hippocampus.
They have a shorter life expectancy.They have a longer life expectancy.

Psychological differences

At the behavioral and thought level, the differences between men and women become more difficult to perceive, since heavily dependent on unique factors such as upbringing, society, culture, etc. Even so, there are certain general trends (not necessarily applicable to all individuals) that psychologists and neurologists have dedicated themselves to studying, such as:

They tend to be more aggressive and competitive, with a greater capacity for focus and concentration.They tend to be more empathetic and understanding, with a greater and more complex emotional range, and a greater capacity for multiple handling of stimuli.
They tend to a more active libido, that is, to a more continuous and intense sexual desire.They tend to a more balanced libido, often interrupted or enhanced by the stages of the menstrual cycle (and / or pregnancy).
They are more prone to frustration, violence, action, and depression. They have higher rates of suicide and homicide.They are less prone to violence, action, and have lower suicide and homicide rates. In general, women tend to be happier with their lives than men.
On average, they have a greater variety of IQ: there is more male presence in the different groups (high and low) of the measurements.On average, they have a lower variety of IQ: women tend to have intelligence values ​​closer to the average.
They tend to be more apt for logical and abstract reasoning, and have lower values ​​of empathy and personal anguish.They tend to be more apt for verbal and aesthetic reasoning, as well as for communication, and have higher values ​​of empathy and personal anguish.

Social and political differences

The social and political differences between men and women no longer have to do with their respective natures, but with the roles assigned to them in society, for whatever reason, and which usually define their participation in it.

This, of course, can vary greatly from one geographic region to another, or from one cultural tradition to another, depending on how entrenched machismo and sexism are within you. In other words, the following should not be interpreted as a “natural” order of things, but rather as something that is observed in current societies but is in the process of change:

They tend to hold most positions of power in society, such as kings, priests, community leaders, heads of families, company presidents, etc.They tend to play subordinate or assisting roles of the powerful, such as secretaries, assistants, wives, servants, etc.
Active, aggressive and outgoing roles tend to be imposed on them from childhood: conquerors, leaders, explorers, innovators, etc.Passive, empathic and introverted roles tend to be imposed on them from childhood: mothers, teachers, caregivers, nurses, etc.
In the traditional discourse of sex and courtship, the active role of the seducer is imposed on them and they are expected to always be ready for intercourse.In the traditional discourse of sex and courtship, the passive role of the seduced is imposed on them and they are expected to be selective when it comes to intercourse.
They are taught from an early age to suppress their emotionality (often understood as “weakness”) and to communicate their sensitivities as little as possible.They are taught from an early age to value their emotionality and to depend on their sensibilities.
They are the most literate sector in the world (100 for every 88 women) and tend to hoard career development opportunities and high incomes.They are the least literate sector in the world (88 for every 100 men) and tend to be in charge of housework, child-rearing and have a low income.
They are much more prone to crime and especially to femicide (the murder of women) and crimes of passion.They are much less prone to crime and often play the role of victims in crimes of passion and femicides.
Culturally, the masculine is associated with the sun and the day, that is, the visible, the obvious and the rational. It is represented by the sign ♂ (Mars).Culturally, the feminine is associated with the moon and the night, that is, with the hidden, the invisible, the instinctive or intuition. It is represented by the sign ♀ (Venus).