Inclusion – What is it, concept, types of inclusion, exclusion

We explain what inclusion is and specifically what social, educational and labor inclusion are. Also, what is exclusion.

Inclusion seeks that the greater part of society has access to opportunities.

What is inclusion?

Inclusion as a concept involves adding, adding or encompassing someone within a group of which they were not previously part, that is, the opposite of excluding. Those who are included are those who are within the group and are, therefore, taken into account when deciding, that is, they are an active part of the whole.

This concept is particularly important when thinking about society. Not all of us come into the world with the same opportunities, not even with the same capabilities, and many times this implies that we play a more or less marginal role in society, that is, that we have or do not have access to the opportunities that it administers. It will depend on whether we are included or excluded.

Therefore, inclusion consists of the attempt that there are more and more people “inside” society, that is, more and more people taken into account for the relevant decisions, and having access to the opportunities.

Hence, inclusive dynamics are those that try to expand society, as if it were about making a bigger table so that more people can eat at the same time; and that the exclusive dynamics are precisely those that pursue the opposite end, that is, those that make the table smaller.

Social inclusion

What we have explained above is, roughly, what we know as social inclusion. The inclusion in society of traditionally marginalized sectors of the population may involve allowing them access to economic aid plans to improve their existential condition, or to free and quality education so that their descendants do not inherit the same marginalized conditions.

These are just some of the many mechanisms that States and many private non-profit organizations use to combat exclusion and seek to build a more equitable society.

Social exclusion It not only refers to economic and educational aspects but also to political participation, cultural life, and social protection in very general terms. A country that lacks the capacity to generate inclusion may even enjoy an economic boom without its population enjoying the fruits of it, since well-being is not distributed equitably.

Educational inclusion

educational inclusion
Educational inclusion seeks to overcome the barriers that limit learning.

In the pedagogical field, we speak of inclusion to refer to the need for schools to respond to an environment of diversity, that is, to a community with social, political, cultural and economic differences. The basic assumption of this idea is that the school system must adapt to its students, and not the latter to the standards of the system.

Thus, the heterogeneity of the students should not constitute an impediment for the school to carry out its educational work, since every educational institution must be able to identify the barriers that limit learning and propose alternatives that can be overcome. This pedagogical model emerged during the 1990s in Thailand, under the assumption of “education for all”.

This translates into an inclusive model of schooling, in which racial, cultural, social and even cognitive differences do not constitute a discriminatory factor, but rather, on the contrary, each student can learn in their own way and based on their own objective conditions.

Labor inclusion

labor inclusion
Labor inclusion offers all citizens the possibility of earning their livelihood.

For its part, labor inclusion responds to the idea that work is a fundamental human right, and that people should not be limited in their ability to exercise and earn their bread due to physical, medical or psychological conditions.

This means that people with physical disabilities, psychological ailments, or even people trans They should not be seen, as they have traditionally done, excluded from the labor market, as long as the skills required for the job are perfectly within their reach.

An inclusive work model guarantees citizens, regardless of their personal challenges, the possibility of earning their own livelihood in a dignified and honest way. In this way it protects them from circuits of exploitation, from the seduction of criminal ease or addictions, and therefore also benefits society as a whole.

Inclusion and exclusion

The concepts of inclusion and exclusion, as we saw at the beginning, are contrary and irreconcilable. Inclusion tends to expand the participation quotas of citizens in society, pursues the equitable redistribution of opportunities and starts from the assumption that a just society is a society in which the largest number of segments of the population are taken into account. population.

Conversely, exclusion tends to close popular participation, concentrate wealth and opportunities in certain segments of society and to let the rest fend for themselves.