Marketing – Concept, history, types and elements


We explain what marketing is and what objectives it pursues. Also, the elements of a marketing and marketing history.

Marketing - Marketing
Online marketing is part of current marketing strategies.

What is marketing?

Marketing is a action that takes place in a social environment, between people or entities with an economic and administrative purpose, where both parties, through an exchange of interests, get what they want.

Different authors have made their contribution to the concept of marketing, referring to it in different ways, but related to each other. We mention two of them:

  • Strategies or plan to follow to make a company reach its sales objectives, based on an analysis of what the customer wants, in order to get ahead of their needs. (Jerome McCarthy)
  • A kind of battle, where rivals – companies in the same field – compete among themselves, analyzing each other, visualizing their weaknesses and strengths, in order to find the best way to attack and excellent defense, where the prize will be the customers. (Al Ries and Jack Trout)

This practice, also or better known as Marketing, is the sum of all the aforementioned characteristics. All contribute a special point of view but by themselves they are incomplete to cover this broad concept, since we will finally understand by marketing that:

It is a process that consists of articulation and direction of strategic actions in order to create a product absolutely salable (that is, it is necessary and has value), this includes generating effective communication between consumer and company, managing relationships, finally obtaining an entity with benefits and satisfied customers.

What elements can marketing include?

  • Market and competition analysis.
  • Determination of the product.
  • Qualities.
  • Value.
  • Message to send to the consumer.
  • Mechanism to send the message.
  • How to distribute the product.

The 7 types of marketers

Marketing - Marketing
Social networks help companies evolve and be on everyone’s lips.
  • Conventional. They are those who adhere to the traditional media, they have usually been trained under these paradigms and although they have witnessed social and computer changes, they remain relatively faithful to television, radio, press or related.
  • Mark. He is an expert in the creation of brands, making a company achieve its particular, personal and remarkable insignia within the consumer community.
  • Internet. If they are handled at all, it is on cyberspace platforms, be it web pages or any other related instrument. It is also known as Online Marketing.
  • Social networks. Today social networks take people’s lives and it is one of the most important means of communication, since it is here where people find the means to transmit information and receive it. If you want your company to evolve and be on everyone’s lips, this is the way to send it en masse from user to user.
  • Communicator. They have the ability to sell without the consumer noticing.
  • Investigator. Applied in research and the rules of this discipline.
  • Visionary. They anticipate the needs of consumers.

Marketing history

Marketing is very old, although there was no university that created the professionals that exist today, yes there were skilled and cunning merchants and men with outstanding vision to which they paid attention, because they had a quite remarkable kind of capacity for business. In the United States they were called “Company Captains”, an example was Henry Ford.

Seeing that this was an issue that reported obvious gains and that required a whole management system, what is the sales area within the companies was created, where personnel and resources were allocated for planning, direction and operations, advancing until understanding that all strategies should be oriented to the client, based on their needs and putting them ahead of them.

It is towards the 80’s when the orientation had changed towards the competition, this being the objective of the companies, as if it were a war. This became known as Warketing.

But if we go back to the beginning, we will understand the evolution of marketing. It all starts from 1800 to 1920 the where marketing was production oriented, since everything that was manufactured was sold immediately and there was no excessive variety or competition.

The demand was always greater than the supply. Subsequently, the crisis experienced in parts of Europe and the United States, made a turn, now everything was focused on the sale, since otherwise the production could bring many losses and stagnate the market.

Thanks to the theorists and university studies, the marketing process itself was taken as fundamental, giving way to Marketing in 1950. Today, what predominates is the one-to-one system, where the important thing is to sell to each person in particular from the information obtained from the databases.