Obesity – Concept, causes, consequences and treatment

We explain what obesity is, the types that exist and the symptoms of this disease. In addition, its causes, consequences and treatment.

Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fatty tissue in the body.

What is obesity?

The obesity it is a disease of a chronic type and of various possible origins, consisting of the excessive accumulation of fatty tissue in the body. It is often considered an extreme and dangerous degree of overweight, which far exceeds the normal limits of energy storage by secreting lipids, and rather puts the proper functioning of the body at risk.

The problems of obesity go far beyond physical appearance, since the volume of body mass is so much that the body takes much more work than normal to move or even function, since the muscles must make a huge effort (including the cardiac ) and constant.

In addition, obesity is part of the metabolic syndrome whose consequences and derived diseases have made it the fifth leading cause of human death in the world. Annually 2.8 million adults in the world die due to causes related to obesity.

Thus, even though it is medically considered an individual condition, certain possible inheritance patterns in obesity have been determined and it is currently considered a public health problem in many Western countries, especially with regard to minors.

The fight against obesity is complex and lacks quick solutions, much less in countries whose average diet abuses the consumption of lipids and carbohydrates, especially those from processed sugar.

Types of obesity

Exogenous obesity is the product of a poor or disorderly diet.

Two types of obesity are commonly distinguished, according to their origins:

  • Exogenous obesity. That which is the product of a poor or disorderly diet, combined with little physical action that allows excess calories to be burned.
  • Endogenous obesity. That which is due to metabolic disorders of genetic origin, such as hormonal or pancreatic deficiencies, in turn due to other types of disease.

Symptoms of obesity

The World Health Organization has established certain limits to define from when simple fat becomes obesity or morbid fat. For this, the body mass index (BMI) is used, which is the square ratio between the weight and the height of an adult human being.

When said index is equal to or greater than 30 Kg / m2, or when the abdominal perimeter (where the excess lipid is usually deposited) exceeds 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women, we will be facing a case of obesity.

Causes of obesity

The obesity generally responds to metabolic causes, such as hormonal deficiencies (especially in the thyroid and in the gonads) that prevent the burning of fats due to more exercise and diet, or insulin deficiencies and related to the metabolism of sugars.

Although a disorderly diet rich in lipids and sugars can make a person fat, even to the limit of being considered obese, obesity is most likely not caused by eating disorders, as well as by genetic factors.
Many obese people exercise regularly and obsessively control their diet, without being able to reverse or “cure” their fat.

Consequences of obesity

Obesity can cause self-image problems.

Obesity has a series of negative consequences on physical and psychological health, such as:

  • Pre-diabetes. Obesity leads in most cases to uncontrolled glycemia and carbohydrate metabolism, which tends to degenerate into diabetes mellitus, seriously endangering health.
  • Cardiovascular risks. A heart weakened by the weight of fat, faced with very dense blood (rich in cholesterol) and forced to work excessively is a lethal combination, leading to heart attacks, ischemic problems (stroke, arteriosclerosis) and other heart diseases.
  • Self-image problems. Obese patients often have socialization problems or self-acceptance problems due to the brutal pressure that our societies exert on the physical and beauty standards, which often triggers obsessive eating behaviors and contributes to worsening the picture.
  • Other derived problems. Obese people often suffer from sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, a tendency to certain forms of cancer, as well as skin and gastrointestinal diseases.

Treatment of obesity

The treatment of obesity requires first of all the determination of its causes. There is no simple procedure to combat it, and generally the dosage of drugs that remedy the underlying hormonal or metabolic imbalance must be combined, along with significant changes in lifestyle, such as a controlled diet and regular exercise.

It should be understood that obesity It is not usually remedied by eating less or doing miracle diets, which can also cause irreparable damage to an already weakened organism.