Participle – What is it, uses, types and examples in sentences

We explain what the participle is, how it is composed, its various uses and characteristics of each type. Also, sentences with a participle.

Some participles serve as adjectives.

What is the participle?

In Spanish, the participle is one of the three impersonal forms of verbs (also called verboids), together with the gerund and the infinitive. They are called non-personal forms because they are not usually conjugated, and they are ways in which verbs adapt to very specific senses, similar to those of other types of words.

Unlike its two companions, the participle is composed by adding the suffixes -ado (accommodation-ado) or -gone (farewell-gone) to the stem of regular verbs, while in irregular cases it presents specific forms that can be very different from each other (as di-cho instead of “i decide“Or die-to instead of “died”).

The participle is a very important verb form in Spanish and in other Romance languages, since among its uses is to form compound verbs, by incorporating an auxiliary verb (in Spanish, the verb “haber”), as in the case of the phrases “we have partgone“Or” what they have recordadored”.

Uses of the participle

The uses of the participle in Spanish are several and very important for the language:

  • In the construction of compound verb tenses. Simple verb tenses are those that do not require an auxiliary (the verb to have), while compounds do require your participation. In the latter cases, the auxiliary is conjugated and the main verb is placed in the form of a participle. Here are some examples:
    • We have agreedadored not fight again (past perfect compound).
    • He there was suffergone a very long illness (past perfect).
    • As soon had unraveladored the mystery (past past).
    • Tomorrow already there will be leftadored to rain (future perfect).
    • It would have havegone to confess (perfect conditional).
  • As an adjective within the sentence. All verbs have a sense similar to that of other categories of words: the infinitive operates as a verb-noun, the gerund as a verb-adverb, and the participle as a verb-adjective. This means that many times the participle is enough by itself to operate as an adjective, that is, to qualify a noun. In those cases, you will need to coordinate your gender and number with the accompanying noun. For example: “My mother was so excitedada to see me “or” Yesterday your brothers were angryados with you”.
  • As part of conjunctions. It is common to find the participle within connecting phrases such as “visto what “,” dadored what “or” debgone to what”.
  • In the formulation of the passive voice. Unlike the active voice (the one normally used), the active voice turns the sentence subject into a passive receiver of the action, and for this it requires that it exchange its place with the direct object of the sentence, and that the verb be replaced by a particular formulation that exceptionally uses the auxiliary be and the participle. In this case, it must also match the patient subject. For example: “Criminals They were stopgone by the police ”or“ The party it was suspendgone by rain ”.
  • In the verbal periphrasis. This is the name given to certain types of speeches or “made” phrases that help us to express ourselves more effectively, and in which the participle is usually combined with other verbs that play the role of auxiliaries, to form a structure that is used in a fixed way. For example: “The war is gave for lostGoing“Or” The game is it gave by endadored”.

Participle types

There are two types of participle, depending on whether the verbs in question are regular or irregular.

Regular participles. Those in which the rule of replacing the verbal ending by the suffix is ​​fulfilled -ado for verbs ending in -ar; and the suffix -gone for verbs ending in -er or -to go. Thus, “speak” corresponds to speakadored, but “eat” with comgone and “sleep” with dormgone.

Irregular particulars. These are participles that do not follow the previous norm and that demand to be treated in a particular way. For instance:

  • In cases where the stem of the verb ends in a vowel, and the suffix corresponds to it -gone to form the participle, the letter i must be stressed, to break the diphthong. As in the cases of reading (legone), bring (tragone).
  • In other cases, verbs may have two participles, one regular and the other irregular, although usually only one is “canonical” or accepted by the academy, or they may even be used in different contextual situations. This is the case of the verb fry (fregone or frito) or provide (provegone or provisto).
  • Finally, there are the verbs that require an irregular participle, such as ver (visto), return (vloose), die (mport), say (dicho), open (abtrue).

Sentences with participle

Below, as an example, some sentences with verbs in the participle in their different roles:

  • My mother has order not so grumpy.
  • We have sent a team of rescuers to look for the ship lost.
  • The soldiers have viewed much destruction in the country invaded.
  • They have found the book that I had lost at school.
  • Time to give for finalized the exam.
  • Your nephew would Dear see you at your graduation.
  • There would be I have arrive early, if you have not broken a pipe at home.