Poetry – Concept, types, resources, examples and what is a poem

We explain what poetry is, what types exist and examples. Also, differentiate between poetry and poem and examples of poetic devices.

In a poem the groups of verses are called stanzas.

What is poetry?

Poetry is a literary genre written in verse or prose that is characterized by expressing ideas, feelings and stories in an aesthetic way and beautiful. It uses poetic resources with which it expands the borders of language.

The gifts and talents of poetry writers are recognized by the subtle choices of words and the use of metaphors and rhymes that add musicality to the works. The most popular touch themes related to love and romance, battle and heroism, and the traditions of a people.

The great ancient cultures developed different and particular poetic styles, such as the haikus in Japan or the ode in Greece, which used to be written in verse and gave importance to the use of meter or rhyme. At the beginning of the 20th century, an avant-garde trend developed that expanded the dimensions of poetry, with the incorporation of free verse and new mechanisms and ways of relating to language.

Characteristics of poetry

  • It is a literary genre.
  • It can be written in verse or prose.
  • It uses poetic resources.
  • It deals with any topic.
  • It can be open to multiple interpretations.
  • It manifests itself in the poem.
  • It can have a metric and rhyme.
  • It was varying over time.
  • It uses subjective descriptions.

Types of poetry

According to its content, poetry is classified into:

  • Epic poetry. It narrates past events, real or not, related to heroic deeds, some of its subgenres are epics or epics. For example: The Aeneid, by Virgil or The Odyssey, by Homer.
  • Lyric poetry. Express deep thoughts or feelings. In ancient times, poems used to be recited accompanied by the lyre (stringed instrument). For example: Ode to Aphrodite, from Sappho.
  • Dramatic poetry. It narrates events and includes the interaction of the characters through the use of dialogue. For example: The Divine Comedy, by Dante Alighieri.

Examples of poems

  • Rhyme XXIby Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer.
    What is poetry ?, you say while you nail
    in my pupil your blue pupil.
    What is poetry? Are you asking me that?
    You are poetry.
  • Cultivate a white roseby José Martí.
    Cultivate a white rose
    in June like January
    For the honest friend
    who gives me his frank hand.
    And for the cruel that tears me away
    the heart with which I live,
    Thistle or nettle cultivation;
    I grow the white rose.
  • The cigar noby Oliverio Girondo.
    He does not
    the non-ovule
    the unborn
    the noo
    the nonpostlodocosm of impure zeros is not that noan noan noan
    and nooan
    and plurimono noan to the amorphous morbid noo
    let’s not give
    no deo
    without are without sex or orbit
    the inosseous yerto noo in a single amodule
    no pores no nodule
    neither I nor pit nor hole
    the macro no no dust
    he no more nothing everything
    the cigar no
    without no
  • Peaceby Alfonsina Storni.
    We go towards the trees … the dream
    It will be done in us by heavenly virtue.
    We go towards the trees; the night
    It will be soft for us, mild sadness, let’s go to the trees, the soul
    Numb with wild perfume.
    But be quiet, do not speak, be pious;
    Don’t wake up the sleeping birds.
  • It’s trueby Federico García Lorca.
    Oh, what work it costs me
    love you as I love you!
    For your love the air hurts me
    the heart
    and the hat.
    Who would buy me
    this headband that I have
    and this sadness of thread
    white, to make handkerchiefs?
    Oh, what work it costs me
    love you as I love you!
  • Early morningby Octavio Paz.
    Quick cold hands
    they withdraw one by one
    the shadow bandages
    I open my eyes
    I am alive
    in the middle
    of a wound still fresh
  • Branchby Pablo Neruda.
    A branch of aromo, of mimosa,
    fragrant sun of the numb winter,
    I bought at the Valparaíso fair
    and I continued with aroma and aroma
    to Isla Negra, we crossed the fog,
    bare fields, hard thorns,
    cold lands of Chile:
    (under the purple sky
    the dead road), the world would be bitter
    in the winter journey, in the endless,
    in the uninhabited twilight,
    if he didn’t accompany me every time,
    every always,
    central simplicity
    of a yellow branch.
  • Just a nameby Alejandra Pizarnik.
    Alejandra Alejandra
    below I am
  • It’s so littleby Mario Benedetti.
    What you know
    it’s so little
    what you know about me
    what you know
    they are my clouds
    are my silences
    are my gestures
    what you know
    it’s sadness
    from my house seen from the outside
    are the shutters of my sadness
    the caller of my sadness, but you don’t know
    at most
    you think sometimes
    that is so little
    what i know
    of you
    what i know
    or your clouds
    or your silences
    or your gestures
    what i know
    it’s sadness
    of your house seen from the outside
    are the shutters of your sadness
    the caller of your sadness.
    But you don’t call.
    But I don’t call.
  • I write, I think, I read … by Idea Vilariño.
    I write
    I think
    I read
    I translate twenty pages
    I hear the informative
    I write
    I write
    I read
    Where are you
    where are you

Difference between poem and poetry

There is a fundamental distinction between the term poem and the term poetry, although in many cases they are used synonymously.

The noun “Poetry” refers to the literary genre and also to poetic compositions. It is correct to use both ways. For example: Poetry was my grandfather’s favorite genre or I have written a poem, but I do not dare to show it.

On the other hand, the term “Poem” always refers to the poetic composition. For example: We are to write a poem for Thursday’s literature class.

Generally, and it is advisable to avoid misunderstandings, the term “poetry” is used to refer to the art or literary genre and “poem” for the resulting composition.

Poetic genre resources

The antithesis is the use of two words with opposite meanings.

The poetic resources, literary resources or literary figures are the different uses of the word that the author uses to enrich or give the poem its own aesthetic. Among the most used are:

  • Comparison. A real element and an imaginary one are taken and a relationship is established between them, both are usually joined with the word “like”. For example: My cousin’s dog has a round face like the moon.
  • Antithesis. Two words, ideas or phrases that express the opposite are joined. For example: I am hot and cold.
  • Metaphor. The meaning of one word is transferred to another due to the similarity or relationship between two concepts. For example: The lawyer and the defendant sparked off during the trial.
  • Personification. Human qualities are attributed to other living beings or objects. For example: The tree mourned the loss of its leaves.
  • Hyperbole. Qualities or characteristics of a subject or object are exaggerated. For example: I’ll go to sleep, I’m dead sleepy.
  • Synesthesia Sensations from different senses are combined in the text. For example: That night a dark silence passed through me.
  • Alliteration. One or more of the same sounds are repeated within a phrase. For example: His silence feels alone in his place.
  • Onomatopoeia. The sounds caused by certain actions are imitated with words. For example: Ring, the phone is ringing.
  • Anaphora. A word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of each verse. For example: We will go together until the end, we will go, even if nobody wants to see us.
  • Hyperbaton. The logical syntactic order of a sentence is altered. For example: At night he went to the store to buy.
  • Oxymoron. Two opposing concepts are used in a sentence or phrase. For example: The silent noise invaded everything.
  • Synecdoche. The whole is called on the one hand, or vice versa, the species for the genus, or vice versa, or the material for the object. For example: Switzerland beat Spain in the playoffs (Switzerland and Spain refer to the players).
  • Parallelism. A particular syntactic structure is repeated in two verses or parts of the text to generate rhythm. For example: Cool days, warm nights.
  • Pleonasm. Terms that are redundant are included. For example: We went upstairs to find a place to spend the night.
  • Ellipse. Some word is voluntarily omitted. For example: I am Brazilian, the one from Bolivia.