Subjunctive Mood – What is it, conjugation and examples in sentences

We explain what the subjunctive mood is and what the conjugation is like in each of its verb tenses. Also, examples in sentences.

Subjunctive mode
The subjunctive allows to express wishes, probabilities and possibilities.

What is the subjunctive mood?

In grammar, it is known as the subjunctive mood a one of the conjugation models of verbs of many languages, especially those of Indo-European origin, such as Spanish, together with the indicative and the imperative.

However, unlike the latter two, which respectively describe realities or impart instructions, the subjunctive serves to express hypothetical, uncertain statements, like wishes, probabilities or possibilities, whether they are imaginary and abstract, or have become reality.

For example, we use the subjunctive mood when stating that “I want that come over tomorrow ”,“ I hope I listen good “or” I’m glad that you are here”. As you will see, understanding the subjunctive requires a certain subtlety, especially since can be found assisting other verbal modes, like the imperative, when we say phrases like “No talk of that ”, or the conditional, when we say something like“ I would only drink if we would have bought another glass ”.

As has been seen, it is very common for the subjunctive to appear in subordinate clauses or secondary clauses, behind conjunctions such as that, Yes, although, among other. Just like the indicative mood, it has a list of different conjugations depending on the verb tense and the verb person.

Verb tenses of the subjunctive mood

The subjunctive mood, like the indicative, is conjugated according to two types of verb tenses: simple tenses and compound tenses, depending on whether they make use of the auxiliary verb “haber”. These times are:

  • Present. Used to refer actions or wishes that have not yet occurred, may occur or have not yet finished occurring. The conjugation of the subjunctive in this tense obeys the following rule (it varies in irregular verbs):
Verbal personVerbs ending in -arVerbs ending in -er or -ir
1st singular (I)-e (I talked, to speak)-to (drink, for drink; live to live)
2nd singular (you)-it is (talk)-as (drink; alive)
2nd singular (you)-e (I talked)-to (drink; live)
3rd singular (he / she)-e (I talked)-to (drink; live)
1st plural (we)-emos (let’s talk)-we (let’s drink; let’s live)
2nd plural (you)-on (talk)-an (drink; live)
3rd plural (they / they)-on (talk)-an (drink; live)
  • Imperfect or copreterite. Used to express unfinished past or future actions, of an assumed or unreal type, generally limited by the context or the temporal markers of the sentence. The conjugation occurs according to the following rule:
Verbal personVerbs ending in -arVerbs ending in -er or -ir
1st singular (I)-ara or -ase (to talk to, speak)-iera or -iese (drank, drank; live, lived)
2nd singular (you)-aras or -ases (you will speak, you will speak)-ieras or -ieses (you would drink, you would drink; you would live, you would live)
2nd singular (you)-ara or -ase (to talk to, speak)-iera or -iese (drank, drank; live, lived)
3rd singular (he / she)-ara or -ase (to talk to, speak)-iera or -iese (drank, drank; live, lived)
1st plural (we)let us or let us
(we would talk, let’s talk)
-were or -iesemos (we drank, drank; we would live, we would live)
2nd plural (you)-aran or -asen (they will speak, you speak in)-iera or -iesen (would drink, drank; would live, live)
3rd plural (they / they)-aran or -asen (they will speak, you speak in)-iera or -iesen (would drink, drank; would live, live)
  • Perfect tense. This is the first compound tense of the list, constructed by using the auxiliary “have” conjugated in the present tense of the subjunctive, and then the main verb in the participle (-ado, -ido). It is used to express oneself subjectively regarding actions that just happened in time, as in: “I’m glad that you have come“Or” I can’t believe I know have fallen in love”. And so:
Verbal personVerb haber in present subjunctive
1st singular (I)is
2nd singular (you)beech
2nd singular (you)is
3rd singular (he / she)is
1st plural (we)let us have
2nd plural (you)have
3rd plural (they / they)have
  • Past perfect. As in the previous case, it is a compound tense, which uses the auxiliary “have”, but this time conjugated according to the rule of the past imperfect or copreterite, followed by the main verb in participle (-ado, -ido). In this case, it is used to express oneself regarding unreal or hypothetical situations of the past, which have already happened and which are far from the present of the speaker, as in: “It would have a better grade if I would have studied“Or” Upon arrival I was surprised that you it would have been already of the party ”. This is the conjugation:
Verbal personVerb have in the past imperfect of the subjunctive
1st singular (I)had, would have
2nd singular (you)would have, would have
2nd singular (you)had, would have
3rd singular (he / she)had, would have
1st plural (we)we would have, we would have
2nd plural (you)would have, would have
3rd plural (they / they)would have, would have
  • Simple future. Used to express hypothetical situations or actions that have not yet occurred, especially if they are subject to conditions.
Verbal personVerbs ending in -arVerbs ending in -er or -ir
1st singular (I)-are (I’ll talk)-iere (will drink; live)
2nd singular (you)-ares (talk)-ieres (you drink; will you live)
2nd singular (you)-are (I’ll talk)-to (will drink; live)
3rd singular (he / she)-are (I’ll talk)-to (will drink; live)
1st plural (we)-we will (we will talk)-we will (we will drink; we will live)
2nd plural (you)-aren (speak in)-ieren (will drink; will live)
3rd plural (they / they)-aren (speak in)-ieren (will drink; will live)
  • Perfect future. Again, it is the compound form (with auxiliary “have”) of the simple future tense, generally conditional or concessive use, very rare and reduced more than anything to legal language. It is used for possible future situations that imply some type of consequence or relationship, and they are formed by conjugating the auxiliary in the future simple and the main verb in the participle (-ado, -ido). A) Yes:
Verbal personVerb haber in the future simple of the subjunctive
1st singular (I)there is
2nd singular (you)would you have
2nd singular (you)there is
3rd singular (he / she)Would have
1st plural (we)we would have
2nd plural (you)would have
3rd plural (they / they)would have

Examples of sentences with subjunctive

Here are some sentences as an example of the use of the subjunctive:

  • That I talked the honoree!
  • I hope so would have more patience, mom.
  • I would not have been wrong if you I would have listened before.
  • I wish we let’s win the lottery.
  • There where forces, do what you see.
  • I am looking for a woman who dance well the tango.
  • Oh, poor of whom I’ll talk evil queen!
  • Yes I would have sung as it should, the prize would be his.
  • I need you to bring home the briefcase.
  • That you Wow very good on your trip!
  • We all want us you choose for your group.
  • Who knows I will deny to collaborate with justice will be treated as a collaborator.
  • If only would have a doctor on the plane!
  • Were Who were, they were your friends.
  • Yes would have accepted my proposal, today we would be happy.
  • I would love if your parents don’t come today to look for you.